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2 edition of Population structure and gene flow in a host alternating aphid, Pemphigus bursarius found in the catalog.

Population structure and gene flow in a host alternating aphid, Pemphigus bursarius

Nicholas John Miller

# Population structure and gene flow in a host alternating aphid, Pemphigus bursarius

## by Nicholas John Miller

Written in English

Edition Notes

Thesis (Ph.D) - University of Birmingham, School of Biosciences, Faculty of Science.

 ID Numbers Statement by Nicholas John Miller. Open Library OL18616052M

Plant populations experience gene flow by spreading their pollen long distances. Animals experience gene flow when individuals leave a family group or herd to join other populations. The flow of individuals in and out of a population introduces new alleles and increases genetic variation within that population.   Aphids are pests of agricultural crops and vectors of phytopathogenic viruses. At the same time they make up a very important component of biodiversity; for example, in Moldova only 9% of aphid species are pests. The trophic reactions of aphids related to selection and use of the host plants are far from being well-known. This paper presents an attempt at classification of the aphid host.

of w ing ed aphid s th at fl y to th e plan t an d fi nd it t o be a suitable host. They deposit several wingless young on the m os t tender tissue bef or e m ovi ng o n to find a new plant. The immature aphids or nym phs that are left behi nd f eed on pl ant sap and increase gradually in size. They mature in 7 to form of genetic drift; a new colony is formed by a few members of a population, so the smaller the sample size, the less the genetic makeup of the population gene flow transfer of alleles from one population to another through migration. the gametes of fertile offspring mix within a population, providing genetic variation.

In other work for this objective, we constructed a large-scale alignment of 7 gene regions for aphid species compiled from GenBank ( aligned sites). for all host-alternating taxa under study, highly variable COI and COII sequences will be sequenced to assist with species delimitation, and to associate primary- and secondary-host. Other R genes belonging to the NB-LRR family are Vat from melon, which confers resistance, involving a hypersensitive response, to Aphis gossypii (Villada et al., ) and Ra, which confers resistance to the lettuce-root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius L (Wroblewski et al., ).

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### Population structure and gene flow in a host alternating aphid, Pemphigus bursarius by Nicholas John Miller Download PDF EPUB FB2

Published: 26 August Population genetic structure of the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L.), in relation to geographic distance, gene flow and host Cited by: Microsatellite markers were used to examine the population structure of Pemphigus bursarius, a cyclically parthenogenetic aphid.

Substantial allele frequency differences were observed between populations on the primary host plant (collected shortly after sexual reproduction) separated by distances as low as 14 km. This suggested that migratory movements occur over relatively short distances in Cited by: Genus Pemphigus [Pemphigini].

Pemphigus are small to medium-sized yellowish-green or greyish-green aphids which cause galls on the leaves, petioles or branches of their primary fundatrices have spinal, pleural and marginal wax glands on most body winged viviparous females that develop in the galls have a black head and thorax and have the abdomen dusted in wax.

Pea aphid, Acyrthosiphon pisum, populations from alfalfa and red clover in eastern North America are known to be genetically differentiated and show genetic preferences for the appropriate host plant.

This species feeds on many more hosts, and here we report a study of the genetic variation in host plant preference within and between pea aphid Cited by:   Miller NJ () Population structure and gene flow in a host-alternating aphid Pemphigus bursarius. PhD Thesis, University of Birmingham, Birmingham Google Scholar Miller NJ, Birley AJ, Overall ADJ, Tatchell, GM () Population structure and gene flow in a host alternating aphid genetic structure of the lettuce root aphid Pemphigus bursarius (L.) in relation to geographic distance, gene flow Cited by: Population genetic structure of the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius (L.), in relation to geographic distance, gene flow and host plant usage Article Full-text available.

Generally, such aphid pests comprise anholocyclic clones, or biotypes, that differ in host preferences, the ability to transmit diseases, or resistance to pesticides. Blackman and Eastop, in Van Emden and Harrington's book, estimate that although about species occur on crops, only about species pose significant economic problems.

Aphid fitness tradeoffs among host plant species results in selection for host fidelity which can inhibit gene flow and result in the development of host races; i.e., host-associated population. This project used genetic variation to investigate dispersal, inbreeding and social behaviour in the aphid $\textit{Pemphigus spyrothecac}$.

$\textit{$\textit{P. spyrothecae}$}$ is cyclically parthenogenetic, reproducing sexually on the bark of its primary host, $\textit{Populus nigra}$, and asexually within galls on the leaf petioles.

The lettuce Ra gene, which confers resistance to the lettuce root aphid, Pemphigus bursarius L., was shown to belong to the large RGC2 NBS-LRR gene cluster in lettuce, which comprises several downy mildew (Bremia lactucae) resistance genes.

An example of population structure and allele-frequency divergence produced by limited gene flow. A Vicariance event: the appearance of a geographic barrier (the river in the figure) that restricts gene flow among populations. Structure of Aphid Populations. Annual Review of Entomology Vol.

(Volume publication date January ) With a growing world population and increasingly demanding consumers, the production of sufficient protein from livestock, poultry, and fish represents a. A gene pool is the sum of all the alleles (variants of a gene) in a population.

Allele frequencies range from 0 (present in no individuals) to 1 (present in all individuals); all allele frequencies for a given gene add up to percent in a population. Considering that aphid interaction with host plants and the reproduction strategy of one aphid species are influenced by the region where the population is established (Eastop ), and that parthenogenesis is common in tropical and subtropical regions, where polyphagous species diversity is higher (Minks and Harrewiijn ), the results.

Insect Science () 00, 1–13, DOI / ORIGINAL ARTICLE Aphid populations showing differential levels of virulence on Capsicum accessions Mengjing Sun, Roeland E. Voorrips and Ben Vosman Plant Breeding, Wageningen University & Research, Wageningen, The Netherlands.

This book covers the evolution of aphids and their development in relation to specific plants. Optimization is used to explain how modes of feeding and reproduction have affected their size and population structure and led to a very close and specific association with their host plants.

PLANT IMMUNITY TO APHIDS. Despite the activation of host defenses, M. persicae is able to overcome these to successfully feed from and reproduce on an impressively wide range of plant species. While research on plant–aphid interactions has long been focused on the plant-side, with resistance genes, hormones and secondary metabolites being discovered, there has been a recent.

tial gene flow, the structure in the population breaks down because sufficient genetic mixing has occurred. Gene flow is therefore a homogenizing force that causes allele fre-quencies in subdivided populations to converge (Wilson and Bossert ).

Allele Frequencies in Subpopulations. Let’s consider gene locus. in two subpopulations. Aphid Population Dynamics in Agricultural Landscapes: An Agent-based Simulation Model Hazel Parry 1, 2, Andrew J Evans 1, Derek Morgan 2 1School of Geography, University of Leeds, LS2 9JT, England (@) 2Central Science Laboratory, Sand Hutton, York, YO41 1LZ, England Abstract: Presently, there are many population models in existence, but these are often case specific.

Polyphagous aphids. Most aphid species are restricted to a single host-plant genus. Many can only raise successful colonies on one plant species. Host alternating species are similarly-restricted regarding their primary host, but much less so regarding possible secondary hosts.A small proportion of species (1 or 2%) can raise successful colonies on many plant genera, and are considered.

A multiclonal population of Rhopalosiphum padi (L.) was reared on oats Avena sativa (L.) and grown in a greenhouse under similar conditions as plants. Aphid cultures were renewed yearly with migrants from the aphid's winter host, to maintain genetic diversity.A significant aphid genotype × host plant species interaction for the variable ‘population size after 10 days’ (F 2,54 = 12; P host plants.

The clone originating from pea performed especially poorly on alfalfa, exhibiting a 93% lower mean population size when.Züst, T. & Agrawal, A. A. Population growth and sequestration of plant toxins along a gradient of specialization in four aphid species on the common milkweed Asclepias syriaca.

Func. Ecol. http.